Julien Le Roy – ses quatre fils / his four sons

Last updated on February 16, 2022

(English follows…)

Ceci sera une collection de notes (en français ou en anglais) qui pourrait mener à un article sur l’horloger français Julien Le Roy (1686-1759) et ses quatre fils: Pierre (1717-1785), Jean-Baptiste (1720-1800), Julien David (1724-1803) et Charles (1726-1779). L’image titulaire est de l’église St-Barthélemy à Paris, où les fils de Julien furent sans doute tous baptisés.

This is going to be a collection of notes (in French or English) which could eventually lead to an article on French watch/clockmaker Julien Le Roy (1686-1759) and his four sons: Pierre (1717-1785), Jean-Baptiste (1720-1800), Julien David (1724-1803) and Charles (1726-1779). The title image is from the church of St-Barthélemy in Paris, where Julien’s sons were very likely all baptized.

The reader is directed to an article I wrote for the NAWCC Bulletin in November 2020, on Julien’s less famous brother Pierre-François, in which I also provided information about Julien and his son Pierre. You can read the article on this site: https://timetales.ca/2020/02/03/article-pierre-francois-leroy-1687-1762/

(Genealogical information and some of the images in the text below were obtained from dgardner‘s excellent work documenting the Le Roy family tree on www.geneanet.org.)

Julien Le Roy was one of the most famous and respected horologists of early-mid eighteenth century in Paris. He and his wife Jeanne Delafond (1682-1769) were blessed with four sons; the eldest, Pierre, followed in his father’s profession (handed down several generations before that) and became an accomplished horologist himself. The other three sons took different paths in life. The second, Jean-Baptiste, was evidently also well trained in horology as a child and young man, as he wrote lengthy articles on the subject in the Encyclopédie of Diderot and d’Alembert, as will be seen below. However, he became a physicist and an esteemed member of the Académie Royale des Sciences, and took his early knowledge of horological mechanical objects to much broader scientific explorations, notably in the field of electricity. The third son, Julien-David, became an illustrious historian who researched and published a groundbreaking work on “The ruins of the most beautiful monuments in Greece”. Later in life, he taught architecture, and became fascinated with antique ocean-going ship construction, designing and building a ship he called the Naupotame, based on ancient designs. Lastly, the fourth son, Charles, became a respected medical doctor and university professor, who also wrote and published many memoirs on medical and other scientific subjects of the day.

Julien’s wedding record – 4 march 1715 in Paris – source dgardner

In his lengthy introduction to the translation of Julien-David’s book on ancient greek monuments, Robin Middleton has suggested (no reference provided) that all four brothers were educated at the Collège des Quatre-Nations, and the Collège de Harcourt, before continuing (in the case of the last three sons, as Pierre would have instead focused on learning the horological craft and trade in his father’s workshop) in advanced education related to their chosen profession. Many of the illustrious French names of the eighteenth century were educated in one or other of these fine schools (Diderot, d’Alembert, Montesquieu, Perrault, Racine, etc.). Obviously, Julien saw the need for a solid educational foundation for all his sons, and he was fortunate to have the financial means, being a successful “horloger” (watch/clockmaker), to pay for their education (and in the case of at least two of them, to pay for extended travels to Italy and beyond). All four sons distinguished themselves in their respective professions, and all turned to the pen to document their findings and accomplishments, which helps us better understand the trajectories of their lives.

In contrast, Julien’s brother Pierre-François, also an accomplished “horloger” though probably not as successful in a financial sense, had three daughters, and little is known of them. One reason is that it was difficult at that time for a girl to aspire to the same level of education, as schools were largely organized to educate boys. Girls who chose to join the convent often benefitted from excellent education in some subjects, and girls from very wealthy backgrounds were usually educated by private tutors and often became very knowledgeable and in some cases successful in their own intellectual endeavors as thinkers, writers. Girls who simply married, were largely destined to manage domestic duties, support their husbands, raise the children. These latter women, though they played a crucial role in the family unit, left little traces in history, and are now sadly largely forgotten.

Below is a genealogical tree diagram that I had prepared for an article published in the NAWCC Bulletin in 2020 on Julien Le Roy’s brother Pierre-François Le Roy. None of Julien’s four sons fathered a surviving son [1], so that line of the Le Roy family ended with them. You can also see that Julien’s brother Pierre (also a watch/clockmaker) had three daughters, all of whom married someone in the horological trade. (Note the typo for Julien-David Le Roy, who in effect died in 1803).

Le Roy family tree – Robert St-Louis 2020

[1] Jean-Baptiste had a son named Basile who died at the age of seven; Charles had three daughters; Pierre had no children; it is not known at this time if Julien-David had any offspring.

Julien Le Roy:

(Contains information from my article on Pierre-François Le Roy : November | December 2020 • NAWCC Watch & Clock Bulletin nawcc.org. See link above to this article.)

Julien Le Roy

Legend has it that Julien was building his first little timepieces at the age of 13 and would sometimes get up during the night to perfect them. At 17 years old, his father sent him to Paris to further study horology with some masters there (he may have worked under Charles Le Bon). He quickly became one of the ablest workers and was known for his dexterity. He was accepted by the guild as maître horloger (master watch/clockmaker) in 1714, at the age of 28, and married a year later. In 1720, still somewhat early in Julien’s career, one of the greatest members of the Académie royale des sciences, the mathematician Joseph Saurin, wrote of him: “Assisted by knowledge of geometry, he has penetrated all corners of his Art, and unites the most delicate of handiwork, with the most perfect and finest theory.”

Julien Le Roy Verge watch movement (with one of the oldest known serial numbers, 679)

In 1739, Julien was honored with the title “Horloger du Roi” (“watchmaker to the King”16) and given an apartment in the galleries of the Louvre (which it is said he did not need so he gave it to his son Pierre to use). This allowed him to devote some time, in addition to running his busy shop, to carrying out research projects aimed at perfecting his art in different areas.

Because of his numerous inventions and improvements in the design and construction of watches, he is sometimes referred to as the “Tompion of France.” [1] Julien played an important role in elevating the status and quality of horological craftsmanship in France after the serious decline that followed the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. Julien raised the level of craftsmanship, in part, by openly sharing the details of his innovations in several articles and memoirs that he wrote and published over the years.

Although Julien is best known for his influential innovations in watchmaking, he also produced fine clocks
and excellent portable sundials (which remained an important device during that period, to adjust the times of clocks and watches). Julien also created the “horizontal” tower clock movement. In a departure from traditional institutional clocks having a “vertical” layout, Julien rearranged the components to work in a more horizontal layout, which required fewer parts, reduced friction, and greatly simplified maintenance. He described this novel approach in his new edition of Sully’s Règle artificielle du temps (1737). Clearly, the teachings he had received from his father, Pierre-Julien, who had worked on tower clocks in Tours, inspired Julien in this regard.

Julien was reputed to be very generous with his workers, regularly increasing their salaries and rewarding work done well [2]. Partly because of his generosity, some have said that in spite of a long life of hard work, he died leaving only a modest fortune.[3] In Etrennes Chronométriques (1760), his son Pierre wrote of his father: “He ignored the pains he gave himself to train able craftsmen at a time where they were quite rare…he sacrificed for them part of his wealth, not only encouraging them by his advice and example, but also rewarding them as much as his means allowed.”

Some of Julien LeRoy’s numerous horological inventions and innovations include the following:
• Capillary oiling of pivot holes, to hold oil in place and help ensure that pivots do not run dry
• “Horizontal” design of tower clock movements, which greatly simplified their construction and maintenance
• Adjustable pocket watch potence (the potence provides a resting spot for the balance/crown wheel interior pivot, which LeRoy’s innovation allowed to be adjusted without needing to take the watch apart, as was the case for English watches)
• Steel cockerel on balance cock (a piece of polished steel screwed into the top of the cock, providing the landing spot for the upper pivot of the balance wheel)
• New designs for repeating and alarm watches (use of wire gongs instead of bells)

[1] Thomas Tompion (1638-1713) was a great English clock/watchmaker who has been called the “father of English watchmaking”.

[2] In his fine horological book (Traité d’horlogerie, 1757), Lepaute wrote of Julien: “Mr. Le Roy does not possess jealousy unfitting of a gentleman, and has only sought to allow all horlogers to see his works,learn from his ideas, and to contribute their own.”

[3] Another view, expressed in G. Wilson’s European Clocks in the J. Paul Getty Museum, indicates that
Julien LeRoy’s estate after his death was worth 200,000 livres, which was a quite sizable sum. Wilson also states that there was great disparity between the different Parisian horlogers in the 18th century, and that this depended more on their business than technical skills. Julien LeRoy was definitely successful as a maker and seller of timepieces of various types (watches, ornamental clocks, institutional clocks); for example, Wilson estimates that his firm sold more than 3,500 watches over the years.

Pierre Le Roy (1717-1785):

Much has been written about Pierre Le Roy in the past, including past articles in Antiquarian Horology by Charles Allix and Giuseppe Brusa in 1968-72, and my article on Pierre-François Le Roy : November | December 2020 • NAWCC Watch & Clock Bulletin nawcc.org (this article is available on this site.) Much more could be written presently on Julien’s eldest son, but since he is undoubtedly the best known of the four sons, at least by horological enthusiasts to whom this article is destined, I decided to focus more attention on this article to Pierre’s other three brothers. Nevertheless, some key information about Pierre and his work is given below.

Portrait reputed to be of Julien’s son, Pierre LeRoy (1717–85); his marine chronometer is displayed beside him.

Pierre Le Roy, as the oldest son, benefitted from all the instruction and insights given to him by his father, Julien. He was apprenticed and later worked in the paternal shop for many years. When Julien died in 1759, Pierre took over his shop and continued producing timepieces with the signature “Julien LeRoy” for many years. [1] He did this in homage to his father’s legacy but also to ensure the livelihood of the many faithful workers who had been employed and trained by Julien. Pierre only placed his own signature on a few marine clocks that he later produced, when this important area of horology became his passion and mission during the second half of his life.

Pierre married late, in 1768, to Marie Barbe de Catheron, and they had no children. He died on 26 August 1785 at his country home in Villy-sur-Orge, and in his will divided his belongings to his brothers Jean-Baptiste and Julien-David, and the other third to the children of his other brother Charles. See: https://www.geneanet.org/registres/view/310539/47

Pierre Le Roy’s most notable contribution to horological history is his groundbreaking work in design and construction of accurate marine timepieces, to help sea-going captains know the latitude of the ship at any given time, which resulted in many lives being saved, and prevented losing precious cargos when ships ran into rocks or shallow bottom in difficult areas. Le Roy was able to do for the French navy what James Harrison had done for the English navy with his own marine timepieces. An entire article would one day need to be devoted to this subject alone. Informative books explaining Pierre Le Roy’s important contributions in this area include:

  • – Ditisheim, Lallier, Reverchon, Vivielle, Pierre Le Roy et la Chronométrie, Tardy, Paris, 1940.
  • – Le Bot, Les chronomêtres de marine Français au XVIIIe siècle‎, Terre et Mer, Grenoble, 1984.
  • – Andrewes Ed., The Quest for Longitude, Harvard University, 1998.
  • – Rupert Gould, The Marine Chronometer – its history and development, ACC Art Books, London, 2016.

In his remarkable work, The Marine Chronometer, Rupert T. Gould wrote of Pierre:

If we contrast [Pierre’s] marvellous machine with [Harrison’s] No. 4, which, in its own way, is equally wonderful, LeRoy’s superiority as a horologist is evident. Harrison took the escapement, balance, and general arrangement of the ordinary watch of his day, and by fitting a remontoire and maintainer, an automatic regulator, and diamond pallets, aided by high-numbered wheels and pinions with lavish jewelling, he compelled it to become an efficient timekeeper. LeRoy attacked the problem from an entirely different standpoint, and obtained his results not by nullifying defects, but by eliminating them. The difference in their machines is fundamental–Harrison built a wonderful house on the sand; but LeRoy dug down to the rock. . . . LeRoy’s timekeeper was an entirely new departure, and the credit of having designed and constructed the first modern chronometer is entirely his, and his alone.

I own a copy of the 1770 book by Cassini and Pierre Le Roy, which contains the latter’s Mémoire sur la meilleure manière de mesurer le tems en mer… This is a lengthy description, written in 1766, by Le Roy of his marine timekeeper which was first sea-tested in 1767, then during the longer voyage in 1768 on the frigate l’Enjouée, with Jacques-Dominique Cassini. This later voyage lasted from May 30 to November 1, and Le Roy was on board for the entire time, checking and measuring the times displayed by his dual timepieces. Cassini was the astronomer who assisted in testing the accuracy of the timepieces through exact astronomical observations.

At the time of the sea voyages to test his marine timepieces, Pierre Le Roy was still managing his late father’s watchmaking shop. He must have had a very able person there to take over the management of the business and shop while he was away for many months during two years, on the sea testing his watches.

The previous year, another sea-going test of Le Roy’s marine watch had been carried out on the corvette l’Aurore, captained by the Marquis de Courtanvaux and also with the horologist on board, from May 25 to August 27. The Marquis had the corvette constructed expressly to test Le Roy’s timekeepers, These tests proved very promising for one of the two watches on board, and it was decided to carry out a lengthier test the following year, crossing the Atlantic Ocean and back.

Pierre Le Roy Marine Watch – cutaway diagram

The results from the 1768 ocean trials, described in the 1770 book by Cassini, were so positive that Pierre Le Roy was awarded the double prize from the Académie royale des sciences, for his achievement of having produced the first accurate marine timekeeper in France. His competitor, swiss-born Ferdinand Bethoud, also produced marine timekeepers around the same time as Le Roy’s, and both horologists fiercely praised their works, claiming they were better than the other’s. In the end, for reasons not necessarily related to quality of design, Berthoud’s marine clocks became the ones manufactured and supplied to the French navy, to the chagrin of Le Roy, who eventually left horology in frustration and disillusion.

Others have been equally complimentary in their assessment of Pierre’s work. In 1907, a watchmaker named Lavenarde wrote these words about Pierre LeRoy, which seem to summarize well the general impression that students of horology have about him: “Pierre Le Roi, poor, modest, quiet worker, without patronizing and protecting influence, guided by the works of his father, gifted with a rare genius, using his talents, fathered marvelous things.” [2]

Some of Pierre LeRoy’s horological inventions and innovations include the following:
• Duplex escapement and Détente (first detached chronometer) escapement • Compensation balance (mercurial and bimetallic—to prevent expansion/contraction impacts of temperature differences)
• Method to obtain an isochronous balance spring (where the long and short arcs of the balance are performed in the same time, improving regularity of the watch)

[1] Julien LeRoy was apparently quite disturbed by the fact that Genevan watch shops often engraved his name on second-rate movements, to fool unsuspecting buyers abroad. This was a common practice in 18th-century watchmaking, to profit from well-known Parisian maker names (LeRoy, Romilly, Lépine, Breguet, etc.). When Julien’s son took over the business after his father’s death, he continued to sign the watches with his father’s name, but also had the initials “J L R” engraved into the filigree of the balance cock, to help differentiate a “real” Julien LeRoy watch from one of its cheap and fraudulent Swiss imitators.

[2] In the Revue Chronométrique of 1862 (p. 416), Claudius Saunier wrote: “For having found longitude using an ingeniously crafted mechanism, but abandoned as soon as it was born, Harrison received
500,000 French francs, and ships were put at his disposal for testing his timepieces. As to the French man of genius [Pierre LeRoy], who sacrificed 20 years of his life, and his personal fortune, to bring to his country yet another glory, his reward consisted of a thin medal. And if this desultory reward wasn’t insulting enough, almost a century after the death of this great artist, a few men of passion and scientific probity must still fight to extract his memory from the darkness where some have tried to bury him.”

Jean-Baptiste Le Roy (1720-1800):

A physicist, and member of the Académie Royale des Sciences, Jean-Baptiste played an important role in many areas of applied science in eighteenth century France. He married late (on 30 January 1771) [1] to Petronille de Messey (1737-1818), and they had one son, Basile, who died at the age of seven (see below). Jean-Baptiste was said to be residing at the “Galeries du Louvre“.

Jean Baptiste Le Roy with the Abbot of Saint Remy, by Louis de Carmontelle ca.1775 (source: wikigallery.org)

Étant le fils de l’illustre horloger parisien Julien Le Roy, Jean-Baptiste avait pour ainsi dire été élevé dans l’atelier de son père, où il aurait été introduit aux divers aspects de cette discipline à un jeune âge. Son frère ainé, Pierre (1717-1785), allait suivre dans la profession familiale et devenir un horloger très renommé. Jean-Baptiste, après d’excellentes études – tout comme ses deux autres frères Julien-David (1724-1805), architecte, et Charles (1726-1779), médecin et professeur – était devenu physiciste et avait été fait membre de l’Académie des sciences. Mais il semble qu’il n’avait jamais oublié ou délaissé les vastes informations sur l’horlogerie, et qu’il les mis à profit lorsque Diderot lui demanda d’écrire la majorité des articles à ce sujet dans l’Encyclopédie.

Detail from cover page of first volume of Encyclopédie, published in 1751

Here is a summary by Frank A. Kafker, from an excellent site devoted to the study of Diderot and d’Alembert’s Encyclopédie (see other article on this site), for which Jean-Baptiste wrote numerous articles, mostly on horology, but also other scientific subjects:


Frère de Charles Le Roy. Technicien et savant. Un des plus importants collaborateurs en matière technique, y compris l’étude des instruments scientifiques, auteur de plus de 100 articles. Plus orienté vers les applications pratiques de la science que vers les théories, il avait au moins un domaine où s’affirmait son excellence : l’électricité. Élu à l’Académie royale des Sciences en 1751, il lui consacra quelque 190 comptes rendus pour la seule période de l’Ancien Régime. Il appartenait aussi à la Royal Society de Londres et à la Société américaine de philosophie. Il appuya les réformes pratiques pendant la Révolution étant membre du Bureau de consultation des Arts et Métiers de 1791 à 1796 et, après la Terreur, un des responsables du Conservatoire. Il entra à l’Institut en 1795.

Jean-Baptiste corresponded frequently with Thomas Jefferson ,and especially with Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790, from 1768 to 1784. Franklin was U.S. Minister to France from March 1779 to May 1785, where he met many French scientists and writers. Much of the correspondence between BF and JB is available for review on the US National Archives site founders.archives.gov. J-B writes mostly in French, but occasionally in English to BF, where he signs “John Le Roy”. He appears to have had a very good friendship with Franklin, as they often got together for dinner, family visits, or to play chess. J-B also shared with BF some of his scientific results (on lightning rods and hot air balloons, in particular).

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

From founders.archives.gov (notes in correspondence between J-B and BF):

Le Roy had been elected to the American Philosophical Society in January 1773. On 5 Sep 1772, he had been nominated for the Royal Society by some of its French members; a number of F.R.S. in England, including John Walsh and Benjamin Franklin, supported the nomination, and he was elected on 10 Jun 1773.

As a physician [*] the Frenchman was particularly interested in the condition of hospitals, a matter that was at the moment much to the fore. The Hôtel-Dieu in Paris had been partially burned in December, 1772, and the following May the King had ordered the hospital transferred to two others. These developments led LeRoy to work on a project, which dragged on for years and never came to fruition, for rebuilding the Hôtel-Dieu on a novel design. Louis S. Greenbaum, “Tempest in the Academy: Jean-Baptiste Le Roy, the Paris Academy of Sciences and the Project of a New Hôtel-Dieu,” Archives internationales d’histoire des sciences, xxiv (1974), 122–40

[*] Note that Jean-Baptiste was a physicist, not a physician. Yet there appears to be evidence that he was involved in designing a new Hôtel-Dieu, according to Greenbaum’s article (not read, but a quick synopsis yields: Son role dans le mouvement de reforme hospitaliere en France dans le dernier quart du XVIIIs. Son plan pour la construction d’un nouvel hopital de l’Hotel-Dieu a Paris et l’accueil tres reserve fait a son projet a l’Academie des Sciences. La querelle sur ce sujet.)  Another synopsis yields: Following the fire that destroyed the Paris Hôtel-Dieu in 1772, the government entrusted the Académie des Sciences with the task of designing a new establishment according to the medical norms of the day. Note that Jean-Baptiste’s brother Charles was a medical doctor and professor, and could well have assisted, or at least provided input to, J-B in this task of designing a new, more streamlined and efficient hospital.

From a letter from BF to JB on 14 Mar 1768:

I hope your good Brothers are well. Please to present my respectful Compliments to them. I was particularly obliged to M. Julien[*], for the frank and generous Manner with which he communicated and explain’d to me the most ingenious Contrivances of his Time-Piece. I cordially wish him the Success and Honour that is due to so much Merit.

[*] In this instance Franklin confuses Pierre Le Roy’s name and calls him by the name of his father, Julien. However, after Julien’s death in 1759, Pierre continued the operations of the watch/clock workshop and store, and inscribed Julien’s name on the timepieces produced. At least one other visitor (Samuel Johnson, introduced to Pierre by another brother, Julien David) confused Pierre’s name with his father’s. Franklin seems to have known not only Jean-Baptiste and Pierre, but possibly Julien David as well, if not also the fourth brother, Charles.

From a letter to BF dated Paris 22 April 1770 (footnotes also from US National Archives website):

J’ai prié dernierement M. Francis de vous faire parvenir un Exemplaire de L’Ouvrage de mon frère qui contient les details des principles et de la construction de la montre marine. Vous avez pu la voir annoncé dans les nouvelles publiques. Je ne puis vous dire combien j’ai été fâché de ne vous l’avoir pas envoyé plutôt. Je comptois sur des gens qui devoient aller en Angleterre et qui m’ont fait faux bond mais je l’ai bien recommande à M. Francis et j’espere qu’il vous le fera tenir bientôt. Je crois que vous serez content de cet ouvrage qui n’est autre chose que le memoire de mon frère, qui a remporté le prix de L’Académie, vous le trouverez un peu plus clair que l’Ouvrage de M. Harrison. [1]

[1] Jacques Batailhe de Francès (c. 1724–88) was secretary to the French Ambassador, the Duc du Chatelet-Lomont, and later became chargé d’affaires; he appears frequently in Wilmarth S. Lewis and Warren H. Smith, eds., Horace Walpole’s Correspondence with Madame du Deffand … (6 vols., New Haven, 1939), iii, passim. The book that LeRoy entrusted to him had recently been crowned by the Académie des sciences; it was Pierre LeRoy’s Mémoire sur la meilleure manière de mesurer le tems en mer … printed with Jean Dominique Cassini’s Voyage fait par ordre du roi en 1768, pour éprouver les montres marines inventées par M. LeRoy … (2 vols., Paris, 1770). Francès eventually got the book to bf through an intermediary; see [Michael] Francklin to bf below, June 22, 1770.

Pierre LeRoy (1717–85) claimed to have invented a chronometer accurate enough to determine a ship’s longitude at sea. John Harrison (1693–1776) was his more famous British counterpart, whose instrument eventually received a prize from the government of £20,000. LeRoy is probably alluding to The Principles of Mr. Harrison’s Time-Keeper, with Plates of the Same … (London, 1767), which Harrison wrote with the help of Nevil Maskelyne. Among bf’s papers in the APS is a short printed pamphlet dated 1770, The Case of Mr. John Harrison; it describes the inventor’s long struggle to obtain the prize first offered by Parliament in 1714.

Another letter to BF dated Paris 19 April 1773:

Vous savez sans doute que mon frère ainé a remporté le prix de l’Académie sur les longitudes. Il paroit par le rapport qu’en ont fait les commissaires (MM. Pingré et Borda) que sa montre a donné la longitude a un quart de dégré près en six semaines justesse double de celle qu’exige l’acte du P[arlemen]t d’angleterre pour les 90000 livres. Et il y a toute apparence qu’elle auroit donné dans toute la campagne des preuves non équivoques d’une justesse semblable si par un malheur bien facheux pour mon frère il n’etoit tombé dessus des caissons qui lui ont fait éprouver un si rude choc que sa justesse en a eté sensiblement altérée pendant long-temps. Il faut que vous sachiez que tel a été ce choc qu’une autre montre de mon frère qui etoit aussi du voyage en a eu son Thermometre cassé de façon qu’il a fallu renoncer à l’observer le reste de la campagne. Notez que cet accident est arrivé au mois de mars c’est à dire presque à la moitié du Voyage mais je ne sais si je ne vous avois pas deja entretenu de tout cela. [1]

[1] The prominent astronomers, Alexandre-Gui Pingré (1711–96) and Jean-Charles Borda (1733–99), sailed in 1771 on a voyage to test this and other chronometers.

A letter to BF on 21 Sep 1778 reveals that Jean-Baptiste’s son Basile, which is mentioned in several earlier letters, was buried on the 16th. Le Roy invites BF to come pay he and his wife a visit at the house of his brother Pierre, at Visy sur Orge. Clearly there was a deep friendship between the two men, as Jean-Baptiste was telling BF that he and his wife would greatly appreciate his visit, which would help alleviate the great pain that they found themselves in.

Au milieu de l’affliction où nous sommes mon Illustre Docteur je ne puis m’empêcher de vous faire souvenir de la promesse que vous nous avez faite de venir nous voir ici à Viry chez mon frère. Nous lui avons parlé de cette promesse il en a été ravi et il desire vivement que vous l’accomplissiez. Vous savez combien un ami comme vous peut adoucir les maux d’un malheureux Pere et d’une malheureuse mère toujours livrés à leur douleur. Vous ferez je ne dis pas simplement une action conforme à vôtre bon coeur mais vous remplirez encore un devoir d’humanité. Quelle influence ne peuvent avoir sur nous la présence et les consolations d’un ami comme Vous. Daignes done nous tenir votre parole cette espérance suffit seule pour apporter quelque soulagement à notre peine. Je n’ai pas besoin de vous prier d’amener Monsieur votre petit fils et de vous dire que mon frère sera fort aise d’avoir l’honneur de le recevoir. D’ailleurs toutes les personnes que vous amenerez seront bien recuës. Si vous voulez y coucher vous trouverez des appartemens bien clos et bien bons pour vous et pour Monsieur votre petit fils. Vous verrez certainement une des plus belles vuës et un des plus beaux pays qu’on puisse voir aux environs de Paris. Recevez les sincères assurrances des sentimens d’attachement d’un homme qui dans quelqu’etat que soit son ame ressent également l’amitié qu’il vous a vouée pour la vie.

Signature “pour la vie” 25 Mai 1788

[1] Present at Jean-Baptiste’s wedding were his two brothers Pierre and Julien-David. On the wedding certificate, Pierre is described as “horloger du roi” residing on “rue de Harlay“. Julien-David is described as belonging to the Académie des Belles Lettres and the Académie de l’Architecture, and also residing on “rue de Harlay”. See: https://www.geneanet.org/registres/view/34940/71

Julien David Le Roy (1724-1803):

Julien David Le Roy par François Gérard

Julien-David Le Roy naquit le 6 mai 1724 et décéda le 19 janvier 1803, à Paris. Il étudia l’architecture à l’école des arts sous Jacques-François Blondel (“le petit Blondel”) (1705-1774) et plus tard sous Philippe de La Guêpière (1715-1773) et Jean-Laurent Legeay (1710-1786). Il reçut un grand prix d’architecture en 1750, séjourna à Rome où il dessina le palais Farnèse. Il fut conseiller du marquis de Voyer de Paulmy d’Argenson qu’il orienta dans ses travaux notamment au château des Ormes en Touraine. A sa mort ses élèves firent frapper une médaille en son honneur.Il est plus connu pour son livre traitant d’aspects historiques et architecturaux des monuments de la Grèce antique, dont la page titre est affichée ci-bas. Originalement publié en 1758, le livre fut révisé et une deuxième édition publiée en 1770. Cet ouvrage révolutionnaire de Le Roy fut reçu avec grand enthousiasme par les lecteurs français, et son influence se fit sentir à l’extérieur de la France aussi, pour plusieurs décennies. Dédié au Roi Louis XV, Julien-David se vut octroyé le rôle d’historiographe au sein de l’Académie royale d’architecture.

Julien-David Le Roy was born on 6 may 1724 and died in 19 january 1803, in Paris. He studied architecture at the école des arts under Jacques-François Blondel (“le petit Blondel”) (1705-1774) and later under Philippe de La Guêpière (1715-1773) and Jean-Laurent Legeay (1710-1786). He received a grand prize of architecture in 1750, traveled to Rome where he drew the Farnèse palace. He was adviser to the marquis de Voyer de Paulmy d’Argenson whom he guided in his works, notably on the Château des Ormes in Touraine. Upon his death, his students had a medal stamped in his honour. He is best known for his book dealing with historical and architectural aspects of monuments from antique Greece, of which the title page is reproduced below. Originally published in 1758, this book was significantly revised and a second edition came out in 1770. This revolutionary book by Le Roy was received with great enthusiasm by French readers, but its influence was felt outside of France as well, for many decades. Dedicated to King Louis XV, Julien-David was awarded the role of historiographer within the Académie royale d’architecture [Royal architecture academy].

In his book, Le Roy promoted a re-discovery of ancient Greek architecture and monuments based on actual first-hand knowledge, obtained through lengthy travels he carried out to study, measure, and draw the ruins on Greek soil. He elevated the superiority of Antiquity above the Middle Ages, from an architecture perspective, and also convincingly argued for the superiority of Greek versus Roman architecture. Although he later researched and published other books (on European architecture, ancient marine ships, etc.), it was largely the 1758 book on Greek ruins that generated his fame and veneration until his death.

Julien David Le Roy – Greek archeological book from 1758 (2nd edition in 1770)

Below are a couple of engravings printed in Le Roy’s book, professionally engraved based on Le Roy’s sketches drawn during his visit of the ruins of these monuments, in Greece. It’s interesting to see the abandoned state of the ruins, which still possess grace and splendor, allowing one’s imagination to picture them in their prime and glory. Also interesting are the contemporary houses and other buildings surrounding the ruins, and some of the local people shown living around these remarkable vestiges of Greece’s glorious past.

All the illustrations from Le Roy’s book can be seen at: https://www.royalacademy.org.uk/art-artists/name/julien-david-le-roy

Julien-David Le Roy – Corinthian Temple 1758
Julien-David Le Roy – Temple of Pola, in Istrie, 1758

In 1764, Le Roy published the following book: Histoire de la disposition et des formes différentes que les chrétiens ont données à leurs temples, depuis le règne de Constantin-Le-Grand jusqu’à nous. It features a large fold-out engraving showing the most remarkable Christian churches built from 326 to 1764.

An interesting story is how Julien-David met with Samuel Johnson and his traveling companion Mrs. Esther Thrale, during a visit they made to France in Sept-Oct 1775. During their time together, Julien David had introduced the English writer and his friend to many rich and influential people around Paris, as well as to his brother Pierre, who had impressed Johnson and Thrale by showing them his marine watch, which had earned him a double prize from the Académie for the successful determination of longitude. Johnson’s journal is rather terse about his impressions of his visit to France, for example this oft-quoted line from Boswell:

‘Sir, I have seen all the visibilities of Paris, and around it; but to have formed an acquaintance with the people there, would have required more time than I could stay.’ [..] He observed, ‘The Great in France live very magnificiently, but the rest very miserably. There is no middle state as in England.’

Mrs. Thrace was more verbose in her souvenirs of France, and through her notes we become aware of their meetings with Julien-David and Pierre Le Roy. On Saturday October 14 she wrote: “Then we went to Julien Le Roy the King’s Watchmaker, a man of character in his business who shewed a small clock made to find the longitude. A decent man.” In this case, she is referring to Pierre Le Roy, who was often confused with his father Julien since his works after his father’s death are all signed Julien. She also added that he had “twice received the premium for facilitating the Discovery of the Longitude”.

Like his brother Jean-Baptiste, Julien-David also exchanged some letters with Benjamin Franklin, whom he had met along with his other brother Pierre, during Franklin’s first visit to Paris in 1767. From https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Franklin/01-42-02-0090 :

Julien-David, though best known as an architect, was also an expert on ancient ship design and navigation. He had begun studying lateen (triangular) sails in the 1760s, and presented his first paper on the subject in 1770. In 1782, he conducted a series of experiments designed to prove the advantages of using ancient sail designs on modern vessels. On September 24 of that year, with Franklin as a witness, he sailed a small boat rigged with lateens down the Seine from Paris and performed dexterous maneuvers in front of the Hotel de Valentinois. Julien-David described those trials in a work published at the end of 1783, Les Navires des anciens, in which he paid homage to Franklin as “le pere de tant de découvertes“.

After the momentous events of the French Revolution, Le Roy became a member of the commission supervising the new Musée d’Arts (which is known today as the Musée du Louvre), beginning in 1789. When the Académie d’architecture was abolished in 1793, as a consequence of the Revolution, Le Roy continued to teach, and helped found the école Spéciale d’Architecture in 1795 as well as the Institut de France.

In his book “Julien-David Leroy and the Making of Architectural History” (Routledge Press, 2011), historian Christopher Drew Armstrong offers this compelling and insightful summary of Le Roy:

While he was trained at [l’Académie d’architecture] and became one of its leading members, it is a mistake to define him simply as an architect. Through his research and publications, Leroy shaped himself to be seen as a figure who participated in a larger scholarly, social, and pedagogical enterprise. His public persona fused with together three contemporary types – the philosophical traveler, the academician, and the mentor – each of whose work contributed in different but complementary ways to the advancement of knowledge and public good. More than an approach to self-fashioning, the fusion of types guides Leroy’s entire scholarly project.

A very informative article by Armstrong on Julien-David is: The Architect as Revolutionary Hero: A Monument to Julien-David Leroy, published in the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 66, No. 3 (September 2007), pp. 316-339. In it, Armstrong provides fascinating details about Le Roy’s death:

Leroy died on 29 January 1803 in a rented apartment near the Louvre. After the payment of funeral expenses and outstanding debts, the total value of his estate was 1,881 francs. The only remarkable items among his possessions were a watch and his library consisting of some 390 volumes including a Bible, a Greek dictionary, Frederik Ludvig Norden’s Voyage en Egypte, volumes of the Histoire de l’Académie des Inscriptions, and seventy-two unspecified works on architecture. No mention is made in his inventaire après décès [inventory after death] of any drawings or manuscripts among his possessions: it can only be assumed that his lecture notes and diagrams were in the rooms used by the Ecole d’architecture in the Louvre.

In his article, Armstrong also tells the interesting and revealing story of Le Roy’s burial in cold February 1803:

On 2 February 1803, the Journal de Paris reported on the funeral of Julien-David Leroy, a member of the former Académie royale d’architecture and the Institut de France, a pivotal figure in the late eighteenth-century European fascination with Greek antiquity and perhaps the only professor of architecture whose grave was literally dug by his students. When the funeral procession arrived at the unidentified cemetery, Leroy’s nieces were shocked to learn that their uncle’s body was to be thrown into a common grave. The fossoyeurs refused to put themselves out digging through the frozen ground, and thus “the students of the Ecole d’Architecture, who had followed the corps to the cemetery, by a spontaneous and general movement, undertook to dig the grave themselves. Half of them guarded the body while the others executed this difficult work. They also announced their intention to erect a monument on his tomb at their own expense.”

The nieces indicated in the story by the Journal de Paris were likely the three daughters of his younger brother Charles (Jeanne Rose Cécile , Adelaide , Sophie), who had died almost 25 years before.

A monument to be erected at the place Le Roy was buried did not materialize due to insufficient funding. However, Armstrong indicates that a bronze medal struck by his students (Vignon, Percier, Lebas, Debret, Bonnevie, Joly, etc.) in his likeness was distributed to the forty contributors who had donated money for the monument. The famous engraver Duvillier obviously used the sketch by Gérard (see above) as model.

Julien-David Le Roy – médaille commémorative par Duvivier – basée sur Gérard (author’s copy)

A bust of Le Roy was made by Chaudet and unveiled in the Louvre on 1 March 1804. Armstrong describes it thus:

Looking like a Roman senator, Leroy was portrayed with a republican simplicity befitting the virtues for which he was remembered. The starkness of the material and absence of any superfluous ornament or attributes heightens the solemnity and calm of the features, stressing the timelessness of the principles embodied by the subject. The bust was subsequently moved to the library of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where it was visible from the late nineteenth century until the 1960s.

Life size bust of David-Julien Le Roy by Chaudet 1804

Julien-David Le Roy’s ground breaking book on Greek Monument Ruins was finally translated into English in 2004, and accompanied by a 200 page introduction (including endnotes) by Robin Middleton, a professor of art history at Columbia University. The translation is of the later and definitive 1770 edition of Le Roy’s book. The publishing details, for those interested to delve into Julien-David Le Roy’s story and greatest work, are:

Le Roy, Julien-David, The Ruins of the Most Beautiful Monuments of Greece, with introduction by Robin Middleton, The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles, 2004. Paperback.

In Journal des sçavans in 2020, Philippe Cachau published an article entitled: Julien-David Le Roy (1724-1803). Correspondance avec le marquis de Voyer (1766-1777). According to the summary reproduced below, the recently (2013) discovered correspondence reveals interesting aspects of Le Roy’s life and thought.

Issu d’une famille de Touraine, fils d’un horloger du roi réputé, Julien-David Le Roy (1724-1803) fut le grand découvreur des antiquités de la Grèce au XVIIIe siècle, alors sous le joug turc. Membre des Académies royales d’Architecture et des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, il publia en 1757 : Ruines des plus beaux monuments de la Grèce (…), ouvrage fondamental à l’origine du goût grec de la seconde moitié du siècle. Une correspondance avec Marc-René de Voyer d’Argenson, marquis de Voyer (1722-1782), l’un des mécènes les plus influents de son temps, proche des Orléans, retrouvée dans le fonds d’Argenson de l’université de Poitiers en 2013, nous révèle la véritable personnalité de cette grande figure des arts, voire des sciences, du XVIIIe siècle. Au-delà de la carrière et de l’activité de l’académicien, mieux connues depuis les travaux de Christopher Drew Armstrong, c’est une facette inédite du personnage qui apparaît dans ses trente-deux missives, rédigées entre 1766 et 1777 : l’homme, ses angoisses, ses attentes, son goût de la politique, du théâtre et des lettres, son activité de conseiller artistique auprès du marquis, tant à Paris qu’à son domaine des Ormes en Touraine, ses liens avec les architectes Chambers, De Wailly (notamment dans la fameuse affaire de la nomination de celui-ci à l’Académie d’architecture en 1767), et bien d’autres personnalités du temps. Surtout apparaît un versant méconnu : sa parfaite connaissance de l’Angleterre au point d’espionner ses côtes pour le compte de la monarchie française. Une correspondance qui éclaire sur bien des aspects du siècle des Lumières.

There is a useful summary of Julien-David Le Roy’s life and works on wikimonde: https://wikimonde.com/article/Julien-David_Le_Roy

Charles Le Roy (1726-1779):

As was mentioned at the onset of this article, Charles and his older brothers attended excellent Parisian colleges. [1] He appears to have suffered from fragile health most of his life, and as a child was sent to spend considerable time in the countryside in the Poitoux region of France, where his mother’s family originated. His college education completed, as a young man he was sent to the South of France, which was seen as gentler on fragile constitutions than the hustle and bustle, dirty air and harsh seasons of Paris. While in Montpellier, on the balmy Mediterranean French south coast, Charles completed medicine training at the university there.

After this, it is reported that he travelled considerably in Italy, in what was referred to as “The Grand Tour” in England, where young men of sufficient rank or means would travel through Europe, principally Italy, when they had reached adulthood, around the age of 21. This trip was to open up their eyes to the known world at the time, take in the various historical and cultural highlights, the scenery and vistas, and come back to their envisioned careers and family life enriched by the experience. In this case, it can be assumed that father Julien paid for his son’s lengthy trip, as he likely had paid for all his (and his brothers’) studies.

Charles embarked on his Italy Tour in 1750, when he was around 22 years old, and traveled all around the Italian peninsula for about a year [2], before returning to Montpellier, where he eventually became a member of the Faculty of Medicine at the university. He tried returning to Paris couple of times, but his health compelled him to remain in Montpellier, where he spent most of his professional life. Eventually, he was rewarded by being made a member of the local chapter of the Royal Academy of Sciences. Charles married Jeanne-Rose Combelle, and they had three daughters (Jeanne Rose Cécile , Adelaide , Sophie), who likely were present at the burial of their uncle Julien-David, in 1803 (see above).

Interestingly, one of Charles Le Roy’s most important contribution to eighteenth century science was in the field of physics, which was the discipline that his older brother Jean-Baptiste had chosen for his profession. In 1751 Charles studied and wrote about evaporation, presenting a paper to the Académie Royale des Sciences in Paris, entitled “Mémoire sur l’élévation & la suspension de l’eau dans l’air & sur la rosée” [Memoir on the elevation and suspension of water in the air and on the dew]. In it, Le Roy suggested that, in the same way that water dissolves salts, air can dissolve water. And that as in the case of hot water and salts, hot air can dissolve more water. Charles’s theory seemed to stem more from observations and reading, than sophisticated scientific experimentation and measurements. The one main weakness was its lack of explanation of how evaporation could work in a vacuum, when air was not present. Notwithstanding this, Le Roy’s novel theory held sway for many years, in part because of an article he wrote for Diderot’s Encyclopédie. Benjamin Franklin, whose friendship with Jean-Baptiste Le Roy was described earlier, himself wrote about the process of evaporation in ensuing years, influenced by the work of the younger Le Roy.

While occupying a position at the University of Montpellier, Charles Le Roy also wrote many treatises on other subjects, such as mineral waters (which he had studied in Italy) , physiology, medicine, and chemistry. Many of his theories about the various phenomena he wrote about were dispelled by future generations, but Charles was driven by an avid curiosity to understand the physical world he saw around him, and like many of his contemporaries, wrote about what could explain such observations, in a society where knowledge was increasing at a very rapid pace, encouraged by the state in part through the various science academies.

Another example of Le Roy’s crossing disciplines (in this case medicine, and electricity, the latter being an area that his brother Jean-Baptiste had worked on) was in 1755. He presented a memoir at the Académie Royale des Sciences in Paris entitled “Mémoire où l’on rend compte de quelques tentatives que l’on a faites pour guérir plusieurs maladies par l’électricité” [Memoir that details several attempts to cure many illnesses by the use of electricity]. In one such attempt, Le Roy attempted to treat blindness in a patient by sending electric current pulses through a wire that had been wound around the head. According to Le Roy, the blind man did perceive some vivid flashes of light, but his blindness could not be cured. It has been suggested that this could be the first demonstration that nerves could be stimulated electrically, which pre-dated work in this area by Galvani.

De Ratte, in his eulogy for Charles Le Roy, published in Montpellier in 1783, gives this glimpse into Charles’ reputation in the practice of medicine: “A sure glance, a scrupulous and reflective attention, a cautious circumspection, discerning justly the choice and use of remedies, the art of foregoing these when nature needs to do the healing, such were the qualities that made his reputation in Montpellier“.

As to his qualities as a teacher, one can rely on the words of Venel, a fellow professor (of chemistry) at the university in Montpellier, who recalled: “Coming out of my classes, students were surprised at all the chemistry they had heard; coming out of M. Le Roy’s classes, they were astonished about everything they have understood and retained.”

The following two images are the title pages of two books/memoirs written by Charles Le Roy (in 1766 and reprinted in 1776, respectively), in which he discusses his observations and thoughts on fièvres aiguës (severe fevers), based on his writing of much literature on the subject, as well as his own clinical experience as a medical doctor. Both memoirs were published in a single book in 1776, in Montpellier, in the South of France. My copy of the book is signed Broussonet D.M., which means it belonged to François Broussonet (1726-1793), a doctor and teacher of medicine, born the same year as Le Roy, and employed at the same University of Medicine in Montpellier.

Le Roy returned to Paris in 1777, both at the insistence of his family, and to establish his medical practice there, made possible by the passing of a famous doctor named Bordeu, whose considerable and affluent clientele Charles was able to acquire. But the persistent health issues that had plagued him in Paris returned, probably exacerbated by his heavy workload. He died in 10 December 1779 (when he was residing at: “quai des Théatins à l’Hôtel de Bauffremont” [3], having diagnosed his ailment himself and predicted his own death. He was only 53, and was outlived by all his older brothers.

A useful short biography of Charles, in English, may be found here: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/le-roy-charles

However, the best biographical article, in French, may be found here: https://www.persee.fr/doc/rhs_0048-7996_1953_num_6_1_2993

[1] In Charles’ case, De Ratte (in Éloge de M. Le Roy, Montpellier, 1783) indicates that he took his humanities schooling at the Collège Mazarin, and philosophy at Collège Harcourt.

[2] Charles’s own brother Julien-David also went on a tour of Italy, starting a year later (1751), as seen earlier. It is not known whether the other two brothers did a similar trip themselves.

[3] https://www.geneanet.org/registres/view/174945/19

Intersecting knowledge within the Le Roy family

Science in the eighteenth century was not yet divided into specialized areas that would occupy a scientist exclusively, but that there was much overlap and cross-pollinization between different subjects, by individual thinkers and writers. It is not surprising that this century in France was referred to as “les années lumière” [The enlightened years], as well-educated people (like Julien Le Roy’s four sons) could learn much of what there was to know about several disciplines, and follow their intuition and curiosity in different directions as ideas and knowledge evolved. The annual reports published by the Académie royale des sciences fostered this dissemination of knowledge, and encouraged inquisitive minds to delve into areas of pure and applied science (mathematics, physics, chemistry, natural history, etc.). Keen minds were also led to explore advances in practical “arts” such as horology and other mechanical machines and instruments; medicine, anatomy and surgery; architecture, astronomy, geography, and others.

In fact, Julien Le Roy, along with his brother Pierre-François, English horologist Henry Sully, and others, created the “Société des arts” in 1718 (re-started in 1728), aimed at bringing together practitioners of several disciplines to share ideas and work together collaboratively. Practitioners of mechanical arts and other craftsmen felt shunned by the Académie royale des sciences, whose focus was primarily on pure and in some cases applied sciences, and wanted to be recognized for the contributions that they made to the advance of French society and economy. As a leader in this Société, Julien Le Roy would often have entertained in his house practitioners in various disciplines; as a highly regarded horologist, his shop would have regularly been visited by some of the finest minds and most influential people in French society. His sons cannot but have been influenced by the presence in their home of such men of science and mechanical arts, and by the discussions that no doubt stimulated any mind receptive to this mixture of thoughts and ideas, at a time of blossoming of various types of knowledge in France. It is not surprising either that Julien, possibly at the insistence of some of his colleagues or illustrious visitors, should have invested greatly in the education of his four sons, leading them on the path of discoveries of their own, in these enlightened years where everything seemed possible to a person with a keen mind and solid education, yearning for discovery and achievements in any area of interest.

This is an example of how the intellectual activities of the four well-educated brothers occasionally overlapped, no doubt because they would regularly discuss with each other aspects of science they were thinking about or working on. Other examples are: Jean-Baptiste coming up with the idea of a “reverse-fusée” design for watches, which was incorporated in some of his brother Pierre’s timepieces, and influenced other Parisian horologists for some time; and Julien-David later in his life developing an interest in ancient ocean-faring boat constructions, and later designing and building his own, which has some affinities with his brother Pierre’s longtime work on developing marine watches and clocks, to allow ocean-going ships to determine the longitude with necessary precision. One can imagine the interesting conversations among the four brothers, and with their father while he was still alive, on various subjects that interested scientists of the day, and coming up with their own inquiries and discoveries in these evolving areas.

In an article published in 2008 [1], Sylviane Llinares writes that “the interest given to technological innovation [by the Le Roy brothers in the eighteenth century] is essentially a family value, often applied to problems of public need”. Her original text appears below (emphasis mine):

…il faut préciser que son environnement familial prédispose [Julien-David] à s’intéresser [aux recherches sur la Marine]. Ses frères collectionnent également les titres académiques et participent aux débats scientifiques des Lumières. Le frère aîné, Pierre (1717-1785), suit la même profession que le père, il est horloger du roi et perfectionne les chronomètres de marines permettant de déterminer les longitudes. En 1769, ses recherches sont couronnées par l’Académie royale des sciences. Le cadet, Jean-Baptiste (1720-1800), a rédigé une centaine d’articles sur les arts mécaniques dans l’Encyclopédie de Diderot et d’Alembert, il est membre de l’Académie royale des sciences et de la Royal Society. Proche de Benjamin Franklin, il s’intéresse à l’utilisation des paratonnerres sur les bâtiments et les navires ou encore à la meilleure manière d’éclairer les rues de Paris. Le plus jeune des quatre frères, Charles (1726-1779) est conseiller du roi, professeur de médecine à l’université de Montpellier, agrégé de la faculté de Médecine de Paris, membre de l’Académie royale des sciences, de la Royal Society, de la Société royale de médecine et des Académies de Montpellier, Nîmes et Toulouse. L’intérêt accordé à l’innovation technologique est en quelque sorte une valeur familiale, très souvent appliquée aux problèmes d’utilité publique.

[1] Sylviane Llinares, “Marine et anticomanie au xviiie siècle : les avatars de l’archéologie expérimentale en vraie grandeur”, Annales de Bretagne et des Pays de l’Ouest, 115-2 | 2008, 67-84.

Annex: The following table (work in progress) summarizes areas of interest and achievements by members of Julien Le Roy’s family. Indicated are either a Maj(or) or Min(or) involvement or achievement in a particular discipline.

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